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Current Location: Homepage » Chinese Culture » Chinese Folktales 中国民间故事 » Main Body

Hexi Scroll 河西宝卷

Time:2015-04-17Source:Internet
Profile:Hexi Scroll 河西宝卷
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
时间:2006年
Date: 2006
类别:民间文学
Category: Folklore Literature
地区:甘肃
Region: Gansu Province
编号:Ⅰ—13
Project No. I-13
申报地区或单位:甘肃省武威市凉州区、酒泉市肃州区
Name of Applicant (region or institution): Suzhou District, Jiuquan, Gansu Province and Liangzhou District, Wuwei, Gansu Province
河西宝卷主要流传于甘肃省河西走廊一带,这是我国至今仍有讲唱活动的少数地区之一。
The Hexi Sroll is mainly circulating in the Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, one of the few areas in China wher chanting-telling activities still exist.
河西宝卷是在唐代敦煌变文、俗讲以及宋代说经的基础上发展而成的一种民间吟唱的俗文学。变文、俗讲和说经主要吸收和沿袭了敦煌佛经的结构,而凉州宝卷则在继承的同时将之进一步民族化、地方化和民间化,使其成为中国民间讲唱文学的一种形式。河西宝卷成熟、盛行于明、清至民国时期,“文革”期间渐趋沉寂,开始走向势微。
The Hexi Scroll is a form of folk chant developed from the Dunhuang varied text and story-telling and the dictation scripture of Song Dynasty. In the varied text, story-telling and dictation scripture was mainly assimilated and inherited the structure of Dunhuang Buddhist scripture while Liangzhou Scroll was further adapted into an ethical, local and folk literature on the basis of heritance. Thus, it was turned into a form of folk chanting literature in China. The Hexi Scroll matured and became prevalent through the Ming, Qing and the Republic of China till it declined during the Cultural Revolution and was the wane hereafter.
河西宝卷有佛教类、历史故事类、神话传说类、寓言类四种类型,内容反映了人民群众的社会生活,主题多谴责忤逆凶残,宣扬孝道和善行。
The Hexi Scroll falls into four genres: Buddhist scripture, historical tale, myth, and allegory. Basically, it reflects the social life of populace with themes mainly focused on condemnation of malice and brutality and advocacy of filialness and good benignity.
河西宝卷的主要形式是讲唱过程中韵白结合,有说有唱,以“接佛声”为主要手段吸引听众积极参与演唱。白话是念卷人为了叙述故事情节、交待事件发展、铺叙人物关系、点明时间地点而采用的一种表演手法,以“讲”或“说”的形式来表现。而韵文则是为了寄寓善恶褒贬、推动故事情节发展、抒发爱憎情绪、烘托渲染气氛而采用的手法,以“吟”或“唱”的形式来表现。韵文体宝卷融会了各种曲调,亦加进了部分凉州民歌调,如《哭五更》、《莲花落》、《十劝人》等。
The major form of Hexi Scroll is the combination of rhythmic and plain presentation of chant and telling, attracting the audience to join the activities in the form of “relaying Buddhist voice”. The monologue part is the form of presentation adopted by the performer to relate the plot, development, relationship between characters, and time and place, all presented either in a related or in a narrated manner. Meanwhile, the rhythmic section is figure of speech adopted to give complimentary or derogatory comments, advance the development of plots, express love or hatred, and setting up the atmosphere, all accomplished either in a chanting or singing manner. The rhythmic scroll contains all the tunes apart from part of the Liangzhou folk song elements, such as Wailing at Fifth Watch, Lotus Falling, and Ten Exhortations.
据调查,现存凉州宝卷脚本约有30卷,大多为木刻板和手抄本,20世纪80年代初期也曾出现过一些油印本。酒泉宝卷已搜集到的词牌曲调和唱腔有七十多种,宝卷数量达七十多种(含存目)一百四十余本。
According to survey, the scripts of Liangzhou Scroll now existent total 30 volumes, mainly in the form of wooden graving and hand-writing. There did appear a few mimeograph copies early in the 1980’s. For the Jiuquan Scroll, the types of tune and style of chanting already gathered are more than 70 and total volumes are up to 140 (over 70 kinds, with a table of contents).
凉州宝卷是在敦煌俗文学的深刻影响下发展起来的,研究河西宝卷可对敦煌学研究有所助益。宝卷中劝人向善、助人为乐的精神,对父母尽孝、与兄弟和睦、同他人友好的品行和勤劳生产、爱惜粮食的美德等,对培养人们的良好品德、促进精神文明建设均有一定的作用。
Actually, the Liangzhou Scroll took shape under the influence of Dunhuang folk literature and the study of it will be of a help in doing Dunhuang studies. The exhortation of benignity, the spirit of being ready to help, and the virtues concerning filialness, brotherly harmony, friendliness, hard work, and thrift all will have a great role to play in cultivating morality of people and promoting the development of decorum and culture of the country.
当前,由于农村经济的发展和生活习俗的改变,已很少有人主动举行念唱宝卷的活动。现在的念卷者,大都是70岁以上的老人。随着这一人群在未来的逐渐逝去,河西宝卷将面临消亡的危机。
At present, due to the development of rural economy and changes of lifestyle, there are very few people actively engaging in the activities of reciting or chanting the scroll except the seniors who are well over 70 years old. With the deceasing of this old generation in the near future, the Hexi Scroll is to face the crisis of survival.
相关传承人:
The folklore story-teller:
乔玉安 李作柄
Qiao Yu’an and Li Zuobing
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