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Current Location: Homepage » Chinese Culture » Culture Discovery » Main Body

Chuanjiang haozi ('labour songs') 川江号子

Time:2015-05-31Source:Internet
Profile:Chuanjiang haozi ('labour songs') 川江号子
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间音乐
Category: Folk music
地区:重庆,四川
Region: Chongqing municipality; Sichuan province
编号:Ⅱ-24
Ref. No.: Ⅱ-24
申报地区或单位:重庆市、四川省
Nominating unit [s]:
Chongqing municipality
Sichuan province
川江号子是川江船工们为统一动作和节奏,由号工领唱,众船工帮腔、合唱的一种一领众和式的民间歌唱形式。重庆市和四川东部是川江号子的主要发源地和传承地。
Chuanjiang haozi ('labour songs') is a form of folk singing, led by a labor singer and accompanied by boatmen, in order to unify action and rhythm. Chongqing municipality and the east of Sichuan province are the main source regions and inheritance regions of Chuanjiang haozi.
川江号子主要流传于金沙江、长江及其支流岷江、沱江、嘉陵江、乌江和大宁河等流域。这一带航道曲折,山势险峻,水急滩多,全程水位落差较大,特别是经险要的三峡出川,船工们举步维艰。川江号子正是在这种特殊的地理环境下应运而生的。川江号子包括上水号子和下水号子。上水号子又包括撑篙号子、扳桡号子、竖桅号子、起帆号子、拉纤号子等,下水号子又包括拖扛号子、开船号子、平水号子、二流橹号子、快二流橹号子、幺二三交接号子、见滩号子、闯滩号子、下滩号子等,因此形成数十种类别和数以千计曲目的川江水系音乐文化。代表曲目有《十八扯》、《八郎回营》、《桂姐修书》、《魁星楼》、《拉纤号子》、《捉缆号子》、《橹号子》、《招架号子》、《大斑鸠》、《小斑鸠》等。
Chuanjiang haozi is found mainly in the areas of Jinsha River, Yangtze River and its tributaries of Minjiang River, Tuojiang River, Jialing River, Wujiang River and Daning River, etc. This area is typically full of twisting waterways, steep hills, rapid water and numerous beaches. The dro of water level along the whole course is comparatively large, so the boatmen are hard-pressed to march on, especially when passing by the dangerous three gorges to the border of Sichuan province. Chuanjiang haozi was created under this special geographical environment. It consists of Shangshui haozi (songs sung while going upstream) and Xiashui haozi (songs sung while going downstream). Shangshui haozi can be subdivided into Chenggao haozi (punting pole), Bannao haozi (paddling oar), Shuwei haozi (erecting mast), Qifan haozi (hoisting sails), and Laqian haozi (towing), etc. Xiashui haozi can be subdivided into Tuogang haozi (dragging), Kaichuan haozi (sailing out), Pingshui haozi (smooth water), Erliulu haozi, Fast Erliulu haozi, Yaoersan jiaojie haozi, Jiantan haozi (approaching shoal), Chuangtan haozi (passing shoal) haozi and Xiatan haozi (getting off shoal), etc. As a result, there are over ten categories and thousands of musical pieces that form the musical culture of Chuanjiang water system. Representative pieces include Shiba che (eighteen dramatic plots), Balang huiying (Balang going back to the camp), Guijie xiushu (Guijie writing a letter), Kuixing Lou (Kuixing Tower), Laqian haozi (towing), Zhuolan haozi (straining at the rope), Lu haozi (scull), Zhaojia haozi (warding off blows), Da banjiu (big turtledove), Xiao banjiu (little turtledove), etc.
川江号子的历史极为悠久,在四川劳动号子中最具特色。重庆、四川自古有舟楫之利,历代史籍对此多有记载。近年来,在沿江两岸陆续发掘出土的新石器时期的"石锚"、东汉时期的"拉纤俑"等文物都印证了川江水路运输行业的久远历史。而川江两岸的人文地理、风土人情、自然风光以及船运中的以歌辅工之俗,无论在民间歌谣还是在杜甫、李白等文人的诗歌中都是久用不衰的题材。学术界普遍认为川江号子是长江水路运输史上的文化瑰宝,是船工们与险滩恶水搏斗时用热血和汗水凝铸而成的生命之歌,具有传承历史悠久、品类曲目丰富、曲调高亢激越、一领众和和徒歌等特征。它的存在从本质上体现了自古以来川江各流域劳动人民面对险恶的自然环境不屈不挠的抗争精神和粗犷豪迈中不失幽默的性格特征。同时,在音乐形式和内容上,其发展也较为完善,具有很高的文化历史价值。
Chuanjiang haozi enjoys a time-honored history, and is the most distinctive among labor songs in Sichuan province. Chongqing municipality and Sichuan province have long had the advantage of water-based transportation, which is frequently mentioned in historical documents of each dynasty. In recent years, the "stone anchor" of New Stone Age discovered along the river and the "towing figurine" of the Eastern Han Dynasty both prove the long history of the water transport industry in the Chuanjiang area. In addition, the cultural geography, local customs, natural scenery and the convention of labor songs have become the long-used subjects in folk songs or in the poems of famous poets like Du Fu and Li Bai. It is generally believed in academic circles that Chuanjiang haozi is the cultural gem of the water transport history along Yangtze River. It is the song of the life of boatmen fighting with hardships, and possesses such characteristics as a long history, rich repertoire, and enthusiastic tunes, ones sung with both with accompaniment and without. Its existence, in nature, embodies the indomitable spirit of the laboring men against the harsh natural environment, and their rough and firm but humorous characteristics. Meanwhile, in the aspect of music form and content, Chuanjiang haozi has developed in a relatively complete way, enjoying high cultural and historic value.
随着机动铁船的普及,以人工为动力的船只在一些干流河湾和支流小河中运行,川江号子生存发展的基础开始动摇,加之传承断裂等因素,川江号子面临濒危困境。抢救、保护川江号子,让它在民众中代代相承,对于丰富、发展中国水系音乐文化乃至世界水系音乐文化将产生积极的推动作用。
With the popularity of motor iron ships, boats by human labor only run in some river bends or tributaries, so the base for the survival and development of Chuanjiang haozi has been weakened. What's worse, the inheritance of it is also broken, so Chuanjiang haozi is at the risk of destruction. However, to save and protect Chuanjiang haozi and to ensure that it will pass on to future generations will greatly promote the development of Chinese and even world water music culture.
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