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Current Location: Homepage » Chinese Culture » Chinese Place of Interest » Main Body

Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System in Sichuan Province 四川青城山和都江堰

Time:2015-08-16Source:Internet
Profile:Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System in Sichuan Province 四川青城山和都江堰
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
青城山位于中国西部四川省都江堰市西南15公里处。因为山上树木茂盛,四季常青,故历来享有“青城天下幽”的美誉。
Mount Qingcheng is located 15 kilometres to the southwest of Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province in the southwest of China, and as woods are exuberant and green all the year round, hence its name, and its claim to the fame “the most secluded and tranquil city on earth”.
青城山是中国道教的重要发祥地。全山的道教宫观以天师洞为核心,包括建福宫、上清宫、祖师殿、圆明宫、老君阁、玉清宫、朝阳洞等10余座。建福宫建于唐开元十八年(公元730年),现存建筑为清代光绪年间(公元1888年)重建。现有大殿三重,分别奉祀道教名人和诸神,殿内柱上的394字的对联,被赞为“青城一绝”。天然图画坊位于龙居山牌坊岗的山脊上,是一座十角重檐式的亭阁,建于清光绪(公元1875~1909年)年间。这里风景优美,游人到此仿佛置身画中,故将其称为“天然图画”。
Mount Qingcheng is the breeding ground of China’s Taoism. All the Taoist Temples, centering around the Cavern of the Heavenly Master, include 10 temples such as the Palace of Engendering Blessings, Sublime Tranquility, Forefather, Round Brightness, the Senior Sage, Jade Clearness, and Sun Facing. The Palace of Engendering Blessings was constructed in the 18th year of the Era Opening Period (730 A.D.) of the Tang Dynasty, and the existing architectures were ones rebuilt in the Guangxu Period of the Qing Dynasty or 1888 to be more exact. It comprises three major halls, enshrining Taoist celebrities and the gods, and the columns within had on them 394 pairs of scrolls which are acclaimed as “a unique spectacle of Mount Qingcheng”. Natural Gallery is on the ridge of Hill Archway, Mount Longju or Dragon Dwelling, and is a 10-tip, multiple-eaves pavilion, built during the Guangxu Period (1875-1909) of the Qing Dynasty. As the scenery over there is extremely beautiful, tourists were as if among pictures, hence got its name ‘Natural Gallery’.
这些建筑充分体现了道家追求自然的思想,一般采用按中轴线对称展开的传统手法,并依据地形地貌,巧妙地构建各种建筑。建筑装饰上也反映了道教追求吉祥、长寿和升仙的思想。对于深入研究中国古代的道教哲学思想,有着重要的历史和艺术价值。
These buildings manifest fully the philosophy of Taoists pursuit of something natural, and bespeak the traditional way of construction as shown in symmetrical outlay along the axis, and in creative configuration of the buildings. Also, on the decorations of the structures are also seen the ideas of Taoism advocating auspices, longevity and ascension to the immortal. Such representations shed light on the Taoist philosophical thoughts in the ancient times of China and boasts great historical and artistic values.
青城山因其秀丽的自然风光和众多道教建筑而成为天下名山,自古就是游览胜地和隐居修练之处,文人墨客们留下了的珍贵“墨宝”,为这座名山增添了丰富的人文景观。特别是为数众多的楹联,不但赞美了青城山的美丽,还颂扬了道教思想、道教经典,表达出对中华民族的人文初祖由衷的敬意,以及对国家兴衰、民生荣辱的关注。
Mount Qingcheng, for its amazing natural sights and numerous Taoist structures, has been a resort wher people appreciated superb scenery and sought seclusion and practice in ancient times, wher men of the letters have left precious calligraphic and literary works, which have added to the abundance of humanist views on the mountain, and which also have disseminated the philosophies and classic works of Taoism, giving expression to reverence toward the humanist forefathers of the Chinese nation as well as concern for the destiny and honour of the country and the people.
都江堰是著名的古代水利工程,位于四川省成都平原西部的岷江上,今都江堰市城西。它处于岷江从山区泻入成都平原的地方。在都江堰建成以前,岷江江水常泛滥成灾。公元前256年,秦国蜀郡太守李冰和他的儿子,吸取前人的治水经验,率领当地人民兴建水利工程。都江堰建成后,成都平原沃野千里,成为“天府之国”,这项工程直到今天还在发挥着作用,被称为“活的水利博物馆”。
The Dujiangyan Irrigation System is a world-famous water project completed in ancient times, and is situated on the Min River in the west of the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province, and to the west of the now Dujiangyan City. It stands wher the Min River flows onto the Chengdu Plain. Before the weir was built, the river often brought about floods, causing great damage and loss of lives and properties. Satrap of Prefecture Shu, i.e. Li Bing, and his son, drawing on the experience of people bridling in the currents, led the locals in the executing of a project for controlling the waters in 256. Ever since the completion of the project, the Chengdu Plain has become a fertile piece of land stretching over hundreds of miles and has been referred to as “the Land of Abundance” or the “Realm of Heavenly Paradise”. The system, till these days, has been functioning well, and has been called a “living museum of water power tapping”.
都江堰工程包括鱼嘴、飞沙堰和宝瓶口三个主要组成部分。鱼嘴是在岷江江心修筑的分水堤坝,形似大鱼卧伏江中,它把岷江分为内江和外江,内江用于灌溉,外江用于排洪。飞沙堰是在分水堤坝中段修建的泄洪道,洪水期不仅泄洪水,还利用水漫过飞沙堰流入外江水流的漩涡作用,有效地减少了泥沙在宝瓶口前后的淤积。宝瓶口是内江的进水口,形似瓶颈。除了引水,还有控制进水流量的作用。
The system consists of the so-called Fish-mouth, the Sand Flying Weir and the Gem Bottle Mouth. The fish-mouth is a water-dividing dyke situated in the middle of the Min River, taking the shape of a giant fish slumbering in the river, separating it into the inner and out rivers, while the inner one is for irrigation, and the outer one is for discharging the floods. The Sand Flying Weir, on the other hand, constitutes the channel for flood discharging built in the middle of the water separating dyke, and serves not only to discharge the floods when in the season, but also effectively reduces the concentration of sands around the Gem Bottle Mouth due to the swirling effect of waters overflowing the Sand Flying Weir into the outer river. The Gem Bottle Mouth, shaped like the neck of a bottle, serves to facilitate the influx of waters into the inner river. Apart from inducing the waters, it also serves to control the flow of waters.
此外,都江堰一带还有二王庙、伏龙观、安澜索桥等名胜古迹。二王庙位于岷江右岸的山坡上,前临都江堰,原为纪念蜀王的望帝祠,齐建武(公元494~498年)时改祀李冰父子,更名为“崇德祠”。宋代(公元960~1279年)以后,李冰父子相继被皇帝敕封为王,故而后人称之为“二王庙”。庙内主殿分别供有李冰父子的塑像,并珍藏有治水名言、诗人碑刻等。
Moreover, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System claims such resorts as the Two Kings Temple, Dragon Subduing Monastery, and Flood Pacifying Cable Bridge. The Two Kings Temple, on the slope of the right bank of the Min River, faces the Dujiangyan Irrigation System; it had been called Emperor Expecting Temple in honour of the Sovereign of the Shu Kingdom, and was renamed Virtues Revering Temple in worship of Li Bing and Son during the Force Building Period (494-498 A.D.) of Qi Dynasty. Li Bing and Son were honoured kings in turn after the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), and hence the latter name the Two Kings Temple. In the main hall within were enshrined the statues of Li Bing and Son, and were stored witticisms for tapping water, poets’ steles of poetry, and so on.
伏龙观位于离堆公园内。传说李冰治水时曾在这里降服恶龙,现存殿宇三重,前殿正中立有东汉时期(公元25~220年)所雕的李冰石像。殿内还有东汉堰工石像、唐代金仙和玉真公主在青城山修道时的遗物——飞龙鼎。
The Dragon Subduing Monastery is located within the Lidui Park. Legend has it that Li Bing, when on the project for controlling waters here, subdued evil dragons. Now three halls have remained, with the front one housing the stone statue of Li Bing made during the Eastern Han Period (25-220 A.D.). There in the front hall exist stone statues of weir constructors of the Eastern Han Period, the Golden Deity, and the legacy of Princess Yuzhen (Jade Truth) practicing Taoism at Mount Qingcheng, that is, The Flying Dragon Tripod.
安澜索桥又名“安澜桥”、“夫妻桥”。始建于宋代以前。位于都江堰鱼嘴之上,被誉为“中国古代五大桥梁”,是都江堰最具特征的景观。索桥以木排石墩承托,用粗竹缆横挂江面,上铺木板为桥面,两旁以竹索为栏,全长约500米。明末(公元17世纪)毁于战火。现在的桥为钢索混凝土桩。
The Flood Pacifying Cable Bridge, also known as the Flood Pacifying Bridge or the Couple Bridge, was built before the Song Dynasty. Situated on the afore-said Fish-mouth, it is acclaimed as “one of the top five bridges in ancient China”. It makes a spectacle most distinctive at the Dujiangyan Irrigation System. Sustained by lined up wood beams and stone, it hangs over the River by thick bamboo cables, above which still are paved wooden planks, and with bamboo cables as railings on both sides, it extends about 500 meters. Destroyed in war during late Ming Dynasty (the 17th century A.D.), it is now supported by steel cables and concrete structures.
都江堰水利工程以独特的水利建筑艺术创造了与自然和谐共存的水利形式。它创造了成都平原的水环境,由此孕育了蜀文化繁荣发展的沃土。都江堰不但是世界上惟一具有2000多年历史,且至今尚在发挥重要作用的古代水利工程。同时它还是集政治、宗教和建筑精华于一体的珍贵文化遗产。
The Dujiangyan Irrigation System marks a unique mode of tapping floods by way of harmonizing Nature and Man with its individualistic architectural and artistic innovations. It created a new water environment on the Chengdu Plain, and henceforth nurtured the fertile land for the prosperity of the Shu culture. Not only is it the only ancient water system that boasts a history of over 2,000 years on earth and still serves important functions, it is also an invaluable cultural heritage that epitomizes the essences of politics, religion and architecture.
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