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Classical Gardens of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 江苏苏州古典园林

Time:2015-08-17Source:Internet
Profile:Classical Gardens of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 江苏苏州古典园林
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
中国东部江苏省的苏州是中国著名的历史文化名城,这里素来以山水秀丽,园林典雅而闻名天下,有“江南园林甲天下,苏州园林甲江南”的美称。根据记载,苏州城内有大小园林将近200处。其中沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园和留园分别代表着宋、元、明、清四个朝代的艺术风格,被称为苏州“四大名园”,网师园也颇负盛名。
Suzhou in east China’s Jiangsu Province is a well-known city with rich history and culture. It has long been noted for its beautiful scenery and elegant gardens. There is a popular saying that “gardens south of the Yangtze River are the best in China, yet gardens in Suzhou are the best among the best”. Records show that there are almost 200 gardens of different sizes in Suzhou. Among them, the Surging Waves Pavilion, the Lion Grove Garden, the Humble Administrator’s Garden and the Lingering Garden respectively represent the artistic styles of the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, known as the “Four Most famous Gardens” of Suzhou. The Master-of-the-Nets Garden also enjoys a great reputation.
沧浪亭位于苏州城南,是苏州最古老的一所园林,始建于北宋庆历年间(公元1041~1048年),南宋初年(公元12世纪初)曾为名将韩世忠的住宅。沧浪亭造园艺术与众不同,未进园门便设一池绿水绕于园外。园内以山石为主景,迎面一座土山,沧浪石亭便坐落其上。山下凿有水池,山水之间以一条曲折的复廊相连。假山东南部的明道堂是园林的主建筑,此外还有五百名贤祠、看山楼、翠玲珑馆、仰止亭和御碑亭等建筑与之衬映。
Located in the south of Suzhou, the Surging Waves Pavilion is the oldest garden in the city. It was first built during the Qingli years (1041~1048) of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the early Southern Song (early 12th century), it was the resident of famous general Han Shizhong. The Surging Waves Pavilion adopts a different gardening technique from other gardens. It has a pond of blue water surrounding the Garden. Man-made mountains are the main scenery of the Garden. An earth mountain is in view from the entrance, and the Surging Waves Rock sits on it. A water pond is dug under the mountain, and a meandering compound corridor connects the mountain and the pond. The Ming Dao Hall southeast of the man-made mountain is the principal building of the Garden. Complementing it are the Five Hundred Celebrities Temple, the Looking at Mountains Tower, Jade and Exquisite Study, the Pavilion for Stopping to Enjoy Beautiful Scenery and the Imperial Stele Pavilion.
狮子林位于苏州城内东北部,始建于元至正二年(公元1342年)。因园内石峰林立,多状似狮子,故名“狮子林”。狮子林平面呈长方形,面积约15亩,林内的湖石假山多且精美,建筑分布错落有致,主要建筑有燕誉堂、见山楼、飞瀑亭、问梅阁等。狮子林主题明确,景深丰富,个性分明,假山洞壑匠心独具,一草一木别有风韵。
First built in the second year of Zhizheng of the Yuan Dynasty (1342AD), the Lion Grove Garden is situated in the northeast of Suzhou. It derived its name because there were a large number of lion-like stone peaks in the garden. Covering a land area of 15mu (one Chinese mu is 1/15 of a hectare), the Lion Grove Garden is in a rectangular shape. There are numerous man-made mountains and lakes and tiered buildings in the Garden. The main buildings include the Hall of Swallows’ Blessing, the Mountain-in-View Tower, the Pavilion of the Flaying Cascade, and the Questioning Plums Pavilion. The Lion Grove Garden carries a distinct theme, and features rich scenery, unique man-made mountains, caves and ravines and graceful trees and grass.
留园坐落在苏州市阊门外,始建于明代。清代时称“寒碧山庄”,俗称“刘园”,后改为“留园”。留园占地约50亩,中部以山水为主,是全园的精华所在。主要建筑有涵碧山房、明瑟楼、远翠阁曲溪楼、清风池馆等处。留园内建筑的数量在苏州诸园中居冠,其在空间上的突出处理,充分体现了古代造园家的高超技艺和卓越智慧。
Situated outside Changmen of Suzhou, the Lingering Garden was first built in the Ming Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, it was called “Cold Azure Mountain Villa”, popularly known as “Liu Yuan”. Later, it was renamed “The Lingering Garden”. Covering a land area of 50mu, the Garden mainly consists of man-made mountain and lake scenery in the middle, which is considered the best part of it. The main buildings include the Cold Azure Mountain Villa, the Pellucid Tower, the Green Shade Pavilion, the Zigzag Stream Tower, and the Refreshing Breeze Pavilion. The Lingering Garden has the largest number of buildings among all the gardens of Suzhou. Its novel use of space fully embodies the extraordinary techniques and outstanding wisdom of ancient garden masters.
拙政园位于苏州娄门内,是苏州最大的一处园林,也是苏州园林的代表作,明正德年间(公元1506~1521年)修建。现存园貌多为清末时(公元20世纪初)所形成,占地面积达62亩。拙政园的布局主题以水为中心,池水面积约占总面积的五分之一,各种亭台轩榭多临水而筑。主要建筑有远香堂、雪香云蔚亭、待霜亭、留听阁、十八曼陀罗花馆、三十六鸳鸯馆等。拙政园建筑布局疏落相宜、构思巧妙,风格清新秀雅、朴素自然。
Located in Loumen, Suzhou, the Humble Administrator’s Garden is the largest garden in the city. Built in the Zhengde reign (1506~1521) of the Ming Dynasty, it is also considered most topical of all Suzhou gardens. Covering a land area of 62Mu, the existing garden was primarily formed in the later Qing Dynasty (early 20th century). The Humble Administrator’s Garden centers on a water theme, with one fifth of it being pond space. Various pavilions and terraces are built along water. The main buildings include the Hall of Distant Fragrance, the Pavilion of the Snow Fragrance and Colorful Clouds, the Pavilion of Waiting for Frost, the Stay and Listen Pavilion, the 18 Camellias Hall the 36 Pairs of Mandarin Duck's Hall. The Humble Administrator’s Garden features a tiered architectural layout, novel design, fresh and elegant style, primitive simplicity and naturalness.
网师园位于苏州城东南部。始建于南宋时期(公元1127~1279年),当时称为“渔隐”。清代乾隆年间(公元1736~1796年)重建,取“渔隐”旧意,改名为“网师园”。网师园占地约半公顷,是苏州园林中最小的一座。园内主要建筑有丛桂轩、濯缨水阁、看松读画轩、殿春簃等。网师园的亭台楼榭无不临水,全园处处有水可依,各种建筑配合得当,布局紧凑,以精巧见长,具有典型的明代风格。
The Master-of-the-Nets Garden is located in the southeast of Suzhou City. First built in the Southern Song Dynasty (1127~1279AD), it was then known as “Yu Yin”. It was rebuilt during the Qianlong years of the Qing Dynasty (1736~1796AD) and renamed “The Master-of-the-Nets Garden”, which took the original meaning of its old name “Yu Yin”. Covering half hectare, the Master-of-the-Nets Garden is the smallest of all Suzhou gardens. The main buildings include the Osmanthus Fragrance Pavilion, the Tassel-washing Waterside Pavilions, the Watching Pines & Appreciating Paintings and the Late Spring Study. All pavilions in the Master-of-the-Nets Garden are built along water, and all buildings fit each other well. With compact layout and great novelty, the Garden carries a typical style of the Ming Dynasty.
苏州园林在有限的空间范围内,利用独特的造园艺术,将湖光山色与亭台楼阁融为一体,把生意盎然的自然美和创造性的艺术美融为一体,令人不出城市便可感受到山林的自然之美。此外,苏州园林还有着极为丰富的文化底蕴,它所反映出的造园艺术,建筑特色以及文人骚客门留下的诗画墨迹,无不折射出中国传统文化中的精髓和内涵。
Suzhou gardens well leverage unique gardening techniques to blend lake and mountain scenery with pavilions and porches in a limited space, and integrate vibrant natural beauty with creative artistic beauty, allowing urban dwellers to appreciate the natural beauty of mountains and forests without traveling afar. In addition, Suzhou gardens embody rich cultural traditions. All their gardening techniques, architectural features and poems and paintings left by men of letters well reflect the essence and inner meaning of traditional Chinese culture.
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